Stepping Up versus Stepping Out: On the outcomes and drivers of two alternative climate change adaptation strategies of smallholders


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This study applied a holistic Driver-Strategy-Outcome analytical framework and rigorous statistical methods, including index-based data aggregation, and Structural Equation Modelling with ‘mediation’ and ‘moderation’ analyses that found the Stepping Out had a large negative effect on smallholders’ livelihood Outcomes;
while Stepping Up had a moderate, but positive effect.

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